What Is a Stage 4 Bedsore?
Stage 4 bedsores are the most severe form of bedsores (also known as pressure sores or pressure ulcers) that a patient can develop, decaying tissue down to the muscles, ligaments, or even bone. These bedsores also put nursing home residents at high risk of infection.
In most cases, residents do not reach this painful, dangerous stage of infection if they receive proper care. Advanced-stage bedsores may be an unfortunate sign of nursing home neglect and overstaffing.
Quick Facts About Stage 4 Bedsores
- Roughly 60,000 people die each year due to bedsore-related complications.
- According to one federal report, care related to sepsis, which may result from stage 4 bedsores, was the most common reason given for transfers of nursing home residents to hospitals.
- According to an analysis by private healthcare firm Definitive Health, about 6,000 of the Illinois nursing home residents hospitalized every year have sepsis. 1 in 5 doesn’t survive.
Diagnosing a Stage 4 Bedsore
A doctor determines the stage of a bedsore by its appearance. In the case of stage 4 bedsores, the large wound has passed the fatty tissue layer of a patient, exposing muscles, ligaments, or even bone.
In a few cases, however, healthcare professionals may not be able to immediately diagnose a late-stage bedsore just by examining it.
A stage 4 bedsore may be initially diagnosed as:
- Unstageable: When a doctor cannot see the bottom of an open sore, they must clean it out to properly stage it.
- Suspected Deep Tissue Injury (SDTI): This diagnosis happens when the surface of a patient’s skin looks like a Stage 1 or 2 sore, but it is actually affecting deeper tissues underneath.
Causes of Stage 4 Bedsores
When the caregivers at assisted living facilities are not properly trained or become too busy, tired, or overworked, residents suffer. Residents who need help with mobility may lie in bed or be left in a wheelchair for hours with no relief, causing bedsores.
In these cases of neglect, bedsores may not be properly treated, eventually developing into stage 4 bedsores.
Certain patients may be particularly prone to bedsores and have a more difficult time healing.
Residents are at higher risk of having issues with bedsores if they have:
- A cast on
- Blood flow circulation problems
- Limited mobility
- Poor nutrition
Symptoms of Stage 4 Bedsores
Most of the symptoms of stage 4 bedsores are related to bacterial infection — a common problem with such serious pressure injuries.
Symptoms of stage 4 bedsores include:
- Open wounds exposing tissue or bone
- Blackened skin
- Drainage and pus
- Hot skin
- Red edges
- Swelling around the sore
If a resident or loved one notices any of these symptoms, they should immediately seek medical care for their bedsores.
If left untreated, stage 4 bedsores may lead to:
- Severe pain
- Renal failure
- Sepsis and septic shock
According to an article in The Western Journal of Medicine, renal failure and amyloidosis are the most common causes of death for patients suffering from chronic bedsores.
Treating Stage 4 Bedsores
Stage 4 bedsores should be treated as soon as possible, as they put a nursing home patient at high risk of dangerous infections and significant tissue damage.
Treatment of stage 4 bedsores may include:
Removing any damaged, infected, or dead tissue from the bedsore
Covering the affected area with healthy skin
Giving patients bacteria-destroying medicine to treat infections
At such an advanced stage, it can take anywhere from 3 months to 2 years for the most severe bedsores to heal.
Preventing Stage 4 Bedsores
The most serious bedsores can be prevented by successfully treating stage 3 bedsores or by stopping less advanced stages of bedsores from forming in the first place.
Nursing home staff can help prevent stage 4 bedsores by:
- Keeping residents mobile by walking and repositioning them
- Making sure residents have access to regular meals, water, and skin care
- Treating early-stage bedsores as soon as possible with proper wound care practices
- Carefully monitoring earlier stage bedsores to ensure they are healing
- Contacting healthcare providers if a patient’s wound is not improving
When residents suffer from the painful and dangerous final stage of bedsore progression, it is often due to nursing home neglect. Loved ones should immediately confront the staff at the care facility or, if they suspect nursing home abuse or neglect, contact their local ombudsman.
Severe Stage 4 Bedsores From Nursing Home Neglect
Not all bedsores are caused by nursing home neglect — however, like many nursing home injuries, late-stage bedsores are largely preventable with proper care.
Severe bedsores may develop in nursing home residents because of:
- Dehydration or malnutrition, which can prevent healing or worsen sores
- Failure to notice or treat earlier stage sores due to skipped or rushed care
- Improper care of residents with mobility issues
- Improper treatment of stage 3 bedsores
Stage 4 bedsores subject patients to extreme pain, high risk of infection, invasive surgeries, and even death. In many cases, nursing homes could have avoided this suffering by hiring enough staff to properly care for residents.
If you or your loved one has developed severe bedsores due to nursing home neglect, you deserve justice. Fill out our simple free case review form to see if you may be entitled to financial compensation. Our partner law firm may be able to assist you.